Heavy Metals (Cd, Ni and Pb) Contamination of Soils, Plants and Waters in Madina Town of Faisalabad Metropolitan and Preparation of Gis Based Maps


Heavy metal pollution is a great threat to the environment. These metals are enters to the soil-plant environment through anthropogenic sources. A survey study was conducted to assess the heavy metals contamination of soils, plants and waters of Madina town of Faisalabad, Metropolitan area in 2010. Soil, plant and water samples were collected in the vicinity of Faisalabad following 4 × 4 Km grids. Soil samples were taken from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths and prepared for the determination of metals (Cd, Pb and Ni). Plant samples were also taken from the same location and dried and digested in HClO4:HNO3 in the ratio of 1:3. AB-DTPA extract of soil, plants extract and water samples was analyzed on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Model Thermo S series). The results of the study showed the concentration of metals in Soils ranged from Cd (0.00-0.111 ppm), Pb (0.87-8.97 ppm) and Ni (0.017-1.72 ppm) at 0-15 cm while Cd (0.00-0.88 ppm), Pb (0.43-6.77 ppm) and Ni (0.055-0.852 ppm) at 15-30 cm respectively. Cd, Pb and Ni concentration in the plants ranged from 0.00-2.25 ppm 1.11-5.29 ppm and 1.51-4.96 respectively. Concentration of metal in the ground water ranged from Cd (0.00-0.06 ppm), Pb (0.10-11.10 ppm) and Ni (0.03-0.05). The concentration Pb and Ni was below the permissible limits while concentration of Cd in waters and plants above the permissible limits. Finally it was concluded that soil, plant and water of Madina town were in the safe limits with respect to metals. The use of city effluent is increasing the level of metals into the soils that ultimately contaminate the soils, plants and waters. So, it is suggested that city effluent must be treated for the detoxification of metals before use in irrigation purposes for crops.