Effect of Dimethoate on mortality
The acute toxicity tests were conducted during certain intervals in various concentrations of Dimethoate. The physical and chemical analyses of water were carried out by following APHA methods. While treating with Dimethoate, the percentage of fish mortality was assessed during 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The estimated lethal concentration values along with 95% confidence limits of Dimethoate were found to be 17.532 mg/l (16.781-19.877), 17.321 mg/l (16.521-18.134), 16.721 mg /l (16.063-17.952), 16.350 mg/l (15.388-17.143), mg/l for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. In sub lethal and lethal exposure, the glycogen and protein levels was decreased, minimum percentage of protein depletion was (22.21%) in kidney and maximum percentage was (49.80%), in liver, were observed, the depletion of glycogen content minimum in kidney (18.73%), and maximum in liver (80.14%), the fish was exposed to sub lethal and lethal concentrations for 8 days, The decrease in protein content in various tissues might also be due to inhibition of metabolizing enzymes by administration of agro chemicals. Decline protein levels in early periods due to stress in metabolic process and impairment of protein synthesis machinery in fish.
nvironmental protection has attracted the attention of the wide cross-section of people all over the world which has now become a global issue amongst scientists and researchers working in this area. Unfortunately several toxic pollutants, few are even unknown or un-identified to the biota, are being regularly introduced in large quantities into the environment, especially into the aquatic environment. Pollution of water by pesticides is an important dimension of environmental degradation. The disposal of the industrial and agricultural wastes directly into the aquatic medium burdens the ecosystem and stresses the need to analyze, the concentration of these substances in the medium as well as in the organisms. The pesticides are also found to be highly toxic not only to fish but also to other organisms which constitute food of the fish. It is estimated that approximately 3000000 people are exposed to effects of organophosphates or carbamates every year worldwide, which leads to up to 300000 deaths. Many of research workers have used the acute toxicity tests of pesticides on fish to acquire rapid estimates of the concentrations that caused direct, irreversible harm to test organism. Many of these chemicals are mutagenic , linked to the development of cancers or may lead to the developmental deficits. Worldwide pesticide usage has increased dramatically during the past two decades, coinciding with changes in farming practices and increasingly intensive agriculture. Contamination of water by pesticides, either directly or indirectly, can lead to fish kills, reduced fish productivity, or elevated concentrations of undesirable chemicals in edible fish tissue which can affect the health of humans consuming these fish. Pesticides were found to adversely affect a number of biological functions, thus causing harm to the non-target organisms. Organophosphate compounds are known for this persistence in the environment and accumulation in the tissues for long periods for controlling the loss of produce due to pest attack and as a consequence of the demand for producing more food, there has been an increasing use of pesticides in India. Dimethoate is an organophosphate insecticide used to kill mites and insects systemically and on contact. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the toxicity of the Dimethoate on the freshwater fish Labeo rohita.
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