Bacteriophages for Detection and Control Pathogens
Bacteriophages are viruses infecting bacteria; they are obligate intracellular parasites also require their own metabolism. Phages are excessively host-specific, capable only to infect certain classifications or even strains. Following their detection beginning in the 20th century, phages were expansively applied to treat diverse bacterial disorders in people and animals. At present, as the problem of antibiotic resistance serves ever more severe, several scientists also clinicians are observing again at bacteriophages as a therapeutic choice in the treatment of bacterial infections. The aim of this review is to consider the current evidence on the effects of bacteriophages for detection and control pathogens.
Viruses are small infectious particles; definitely 20- 200 nm consisting of a nucleic acid core (single or double stranded RNA or DNA) covered by a protein coat (capsid) and in some cases a lipid envelope. Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect prokaryotes. With today`s emphasis on the availability of fresh foods without chemical preservatives, there is a require for new preservation approaches. Bacteriophages or phages are the headmost numerous microorganisms in our environs also are existent in high numbers in water as well as foods of various origins. They are cultured in their respective host bacteria using conventional microbiological methods and definitely have very certain host ranges limited to one or a few bacterial species. Phages have been applied in a diversity of applications to exploit their exquisite host specificity, including use as indicators of the presence of their bacterial hosts and as indicators of bacterial (manure) contamination. Typing phages have been broadly practiced in identifying also categorizing human bacterial pathogens. Phages allow potential for targeted biological manage of bacterial pathogens in human, animal, as well as plant diseases. Phages were discovered in 1915 by British microbiologist Felix Twort, and, independently in 1917, by French-Canadian microbiologist Felix d’Hérelle. Phages can beconventionally classified into two categories according to the strategies they apply to get away their hosts: filamentous phages and lytic phages. Filamentous phages always extrude from their hosts without effecting host lysis, whereas entirety difference phages are lytic phages that encode gene products to compromise or destroy the bacterial cell wall. The aim of this review is to consider the current evidence on the effects of bacteriophages for detection and control pathogens.
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