A Short Review of Immunochemistry


A Short Review of Immunochemistry

Immunochemistry (IC) provides the basis of molecular mechanisms associated with immune system functions as it relates to the nature of antibodies, antigens and their interactions. Нe various methods in immunochemistry have been developed and refined and been used in scientific study, from virology to molecular evolution. Нe application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins has been published by Svante Arrhenius in 1907 which described immunochemistry.

Immunochemistry has also been studied from the aspect of using antibodies to label epitopes of interest in cells (immunocytochemistry) or tissues (immunohistochemistry) and these have been used in the diagnosis of diseases. Нe detection of Syphilis by Wasserman test provided the diagnostic use of IC in infectious diseases. In immunochemistry, antibody titer and dilutions as well as incubation time, temperature and pre-treatment of tissue samples are tightly interwoven in their effect on staining quality. Нese factors can be changed independently, or as is more oіen the case, in complementary fashion to bring about positive differences. Нe predominant goal of an immunochemical staining is to achieve optimal specific staining accompanied by minimal interference from background staining. Hence, this paper provides a short review of the basic immunochemistry techniques and their applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases and tumor.

Immunochemistry has been utilized in the diagnosis as well as in the prognosis of diseases and tumors through the development of locus-specific monoclonal antibodies. Нese have enabled the adequate diagnosis of diseases as compared to the traditional diseases diagnostic techniques. However, the prognostic applications of immunochemistry in certain tumors have also paved way for the utilization of preventive measures against these tumors development. Hence, the evolution of diagnostic markers is significantly changing the clinical practices of the surgical pathologists and this has demonstrated the improvement of disease diagnoses by the use immunochemistry.

Immunogenetics: Open access journal focuses on the genetic research areas of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, systemic lupus erythematous, etc.

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