A board types of Immune System


A board types of Immune System

There are two broad types of immune systems. The innate immune system of defense depends on invariant receptors that recognize common features of pathogens, but are not varied enough to recognize all types of pathogens, or specific enough to act effectively against re-infection by the same pathogen. Although effective, this system lacks both specificity and the ability to acquire better receptors to deal with the same infectious challenge in the future, a phenomenon called immunological memory. These two properties, specificity and memory, are the main characteristics of the second type of immune system, known as the specific or adaptive immune system, which is based on antigen specific receptors. Besides these two families of different receptors that help in immune recognition of foreign infectious agents, both the innate and the adaptive immune systems rely on soluble mediators like the different cytokines and kemokines that allow the different cells involved in an immune response to communicate with each other. The major focus of immunogeneticists is the identification, characterization, and sequencing of genes coding for the multiple receptors and mediators of immune responses.

Historically, the launch of immunogenetics could be traced back to the demonstration of Mendelian inheritance of the human ABO blood groups in 1910. The importance of this group of molecules is still highlighted by their important in blood transfusion and organ transplantation protocols. Major developments that contributed to the emergence of immunogenetics as an independent discipline in immunology were the rediscovery of allograft reactions during the Second World War and the formulation of an immunological theory of allograft reaction as well as the formulation of the clonal selection hypothesis.

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